Going Inside a Man's Mind With Steve Harvey
30 Apr It acts on our perceptions much as gravity acts on light, bending them in ways that are measurable by others, but, at least to us, imperceptible. Not only do we tend to see what we expect to see, we also tend to experience what we expect to experience. As Hitchcock proved, this can make all the difference. 7 Oct It'll make you question everything you think you know and then make you want to start from scratch and read more into the mythology, history and “weird shit” you see in the film and the craziness from the book. And some of it might not seem so weird afterwards. But I'll let you be the judge of that. 2 Dec The world is a big place with lots of visual stimuli, and it turns out that over the millennia, our brains have learned that most of it is garbage. We don't see the majority of what's in our field of vision, and our brain takes all kinds of shortcuts to trick us into believing we're seeing the whole picture when we're not.
Every normal mammal eye has a scotoma in its field of vision, usually termed its blind spot. This is a location with no photoreceptor cellswhere the retinal ganglion cell axons that compose the optic nerve exit the retina.
This location is called the optic disc. There is no direct conscious awareness of visual scotomas. They read more simply regions of reduced information within the visual field.
Rather than recognizing an incomplete image, patients with scotomas report that things "disappear" on them. The presence of the blind spot scotoma can be demonstrated subjectively by covering one eye, carefully holding fixation with the open eye, and placing an object such as one's thumb in the lateral and horizontal visual field, about 15 degrees from fixation see the blind spot article.
A scotoma can be a symptom of damage to any part of the visual system, such as retinal damage from exposure to high-powered lasers, macular degeneration and brain damage.
Several cows did notice, however, and they followed Cornell on his ghostly rambles. My daughter goes to the ER. Also in this week's column: The presence of the blind spot scotoma can be demonstrated subjectively by covering one eye, carefully holding fixation with the open eye, and placing an object such as one's thumb in the lateral and horizontal visual field, about 15 degrees from fixation see the blind spot article. The emotional power of this is considerable.
The term scotoma is also used metaphorically in several fields. The common theme of all the figurative senses is of a gap not in visual function but in the mind's perceptioncognitionor world view. Symptom-producing, or pathologicalscotomata may be due to a wide range of disease processes, affecting any part of the visual system, including the retina in particular its most sensitive portion, the maculathe optic nerve and even the visual cortex.
A scotoma may include and enlarge the normal blind spot. Even a small scotoma that happens to affect central or macular vision will produce a severe visual disabilitywhereas a large scotoma in the more peripheral part of a visual field may go unnoticed by the bearer because of the normal reduced optical resolution in the peripheral visual field.
Common causes of scotomata include demyelinating disease such as multiple sclerosis retrobulbar neuritisdamage to nerve fiber layer in the retina seen as cotton wool spots  due to hypertension, toxic substances such as methyl alcoholethambutol and quininenutritional deficienciesvascular blockages either in the retina or in the optic nerve, stroke or other brain injury, and macular degenerationoften associated with aging.
Scintillating scotoma is a common visual aura in migraine. Rarely, scotomata are bilateral.
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One important variety of bilateral scotoma may occur when a pituitary tumour begins to compress the optic chiasm as distinct from a single optic nerve and produces a bitemporal paracentral scotomaand later, when the tumor enlarges, the scotomas extend out to the periphery to cause the characteristic bitemporal hemianopsia. This type of visual-field defect tends to be obvious to the person experiencing it but often evades early objective diagnosisas it is more difficult to detect by cursory clinical examination than the classical or textbook bitemporal peripheral hemianopia and may even elude sophisticated electronic modes of visual-field assessment.
In a pregnant woman, scotomata can present as a symptom of severe preeclampsiaa form of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Similarly, scotomata may develop as a result of the increased intracranial pressure that occurs in malignant hypertension. Beyond its literal sense concerning the visual system, the term scotoma is also used metaphorically in several fields, including neurologyneuropsychologypsychologyphilosophyand politics.
Their concrete connection to the literal sense, however, is by the connection between the nervous system and the mind, via the chain of links from sensory input, to nerve conduction, to the brain, to perception the processing and interpreting of that input via the brain-mind correlation, to psychological function.
Your Hidden Censor: What Your Mind Will Not Let You See
Thus there is not only or not necessarily a visual inability to see an aspect of reality but also or instead a mental inability to conceive even the possibility of seeing that aspect, due to a cognitive schema that lacks any provision for it. At the most concrete level, there is neuropsychological scotoma. One example is the hemispatial neglect that is sometimes experienced by people who have had strokes.
Another type is the phenomenon of reverse or negative phantom limb, in The Mind Chooses To See What It Wants To See nerve injuries to the limbs, such as trauma in which a limb's nerves are severed but the limb is spared from amputationcan affect the mind's body schema in such a way that an existing limb seems to its owner like it should not exist, and its presence thus seems uncanny. Neurologist Oliver Sackswho experienced a reverse phantom leg that later resolved,  considered it a form of spatial neglect in the body schema analogous to hemispatial neglect in that the mind could not conceive of the leg as self because it could not conceive that there was any space for the leg to exist in.
Sacks and others agreed that the leg thus seemed like someone else's leg, including sometimes a cadaverous one, which was part of the reason for the dysphoria but not the sole explanation. Even for people who intellectually understood that the leg or hand was supposed to be theirs simply could not believe it emotionally and could The Mind Chooses To See What It Wants To See completely reconcile reality with schema, prompting great unease.
Given how hard this is to comprehend for a person who has not experienced it, people recently experiencing it for the first time consider it both uncanny and ineffable as Sacks self-reported and found in others .
Sacks also explored the regular type of phantom limb a positive phantomwhich does not produce a neuropsychological scotoma but shares with reverse phantoms the trait that the body schema resists revision despite a person's perfect intellectual awareness and acceptance of the current physical reality that is, that the amputated limb is gone or that the spared limb is still present.
This suggests that aspects of schema in the mind body schema, world schema source neurologic bases that cannot be revised by mere intellectual understanding—at least not quickly. Sacks does explore the topic of how people adapt to phantoms over the years and how positive phantom limbs often gradually foreshorten and sometimes disappear; but some remain for the rest of life.
At a higher level of abstraction are what have been called psychological scotomasin which a person's self-perception of his or her own personality is judged by others to have a gap in perceptive ability. Thus, in psychologyscotoma can refer to a person's inability to perceive personality traits in themselves that are obvious to others.
And at the highest abstraction level are what have been called intellectual scotomasin which a person cannot perceive distortions in their world view that are obvious to others. Thus, in philosophy or politics, a person's thoughts or beliefs might be shaped by an inability to appreciate aspects of social interaction or institutional structure.
TripathiEssentials of medical pharmacology 7th edition, Aminoglycoside antibioticspage no: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scotoma A depiction of a scintillating scotoma that was almost spiral-shaped, with distortion of shapes but otherwise melting into the background similarly to the physiological blind spotas may be caused by cortical spreading depression Classification and external resources Specialty ophthalmology ICD - 10 H Distorted vision Floater Scotomization Visual field.
Amsler grid Horizontal eccentricity Perimetry Visual field test.
Binasal hemianopsia Bitemporal hemianopsia Blind spot Cortical spreading depression Scintillating scotoma. Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. Robin, Brain, pages Bird, Br Http://myfirstmeet.date/xyp/laura-and-tony-dating-in-the-dark.php Ophthalmol61 3pages — Diseases of the human eye H00—H59 — Dacryoadenitis Epiphora Dacryocystitis Xerophthalmia.
Exophthalmos Enophthalmos Orbital cellulitis Orbital lymphoma Periorbital cellulitis. Conjunctivitis allergic Pterygium Pinguecula Subconjunctival hemorrhage. Cataract Congenital cataract Childhood cataract Aphakia Ectopia lentis. Ophthalmoparesis Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia Kearns—Sayre syndrome.
Conjugate gaze palsy Convergence insufficiency Internuclear ophthalmoplegia One and a half syndrome. Hemianopsia binasal bitemporal homonymous Quadrantanopia. Asthenopia Hemeralopia Photophobia Scintillating scotoma. Retrieved from " https: Visual disturbances and blindness.
Going Inside a Man's Mind With Steve Harvey
Globe Fibrous tunic Sclera Scleritis Episcleritis. Paralytic strabismus Ophthalmoparesis Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia Kearns—Sayre syndrome.